Those who only respond to the voice of power 只听得懂权利的声音的人
By Zhang Ming, professor at Renmin Daxing's Department of Politics Studies
1, (Summary) A serious pollution problem in Inner Mongolia was exposed last September but the local government kept denying it. The director of the Environment Bureau even said that he would promise with his personal integrity that there was no pollution. A month after the highest leader from the country commanded an order and changed the situation.
2, There are many environmental diasters, mass events and forced demolition problems in China, but all of the problems will only attract attention when the big leader starts to care. Some people in China only respond to the voice of power. In terms of media's exposure, their only concern is that their leaders will learn from media's report, therefore they would pay to resolve the public relation crisis.
3, Since the ancient times, in Chinese politics, people have always only responded to the voice of power. It is because that only the voice of power could make officials rich or get them promoted, and make some go downhill. This voice of power only has one source, which is the emperor. Except this, what law, what public opinion, what moral discipline, they are all bullshit.
4, No matter in what era, any kind of political sphere that does not allow the rule of law and regulations will be a disaster for the emperor.
5, In the ancient time, emperors with a bit of intelligence would know that the society belongs to everyone. Therefore, one person can not be in charge of the whole society. If there are media and ordinary people who want to be in charge but got ignored in the best scenario, but got oppressed in the worse scenario, then the society will definitely be chaotic. The success and death of a society depends on the responsibility of each person. We have cried this sentence for hundreds of years. But if ordinary people could have responsibility, they need to have power. If they don't even have the power to ask for responsibility, the society has no choice but to die.
By Song Shaopeng, lecturer at Renmin University's China School of Marxism Studies
(I think this is a great article, very readable, logical and convincing. Here are some quotations)
Under the management of Guangzhou Social Science Institute. Open Times was set up in 1982, named Guangzhou Studies; in 1989 it changed to its current name Open Times. It is a monthly magazine that "cares the society with academic power （以学术关怀社会）" .
1, The intention of “Sex Cleansing in Dongguan was not to restore Chinese people's sexual morality, but rather a reform within its own ruling system with other intentions. There might even be efforts to interpret the healthy development of market economy; to understand the politcal and economic alliance in China's political ecology; and to resotre a healthier relationship between politics and economics. Both official media and the government highlight on combating the political and economic alliance (the protective umbrella) behind the sex industry.
2, CCTV is a symbole of politcal system. “Lost women” is a symbol of the oppressed and the victimized. Therefore, in the binary relationship between the cleansing and the cleansed, the action of “sex cleansing” also signifies political oppression. Those who support Dongguan and cry for “Stay there Dongguan” show their political and moral integrity towards the oppressing power and stand up for the underprivileged. In the two ends of this discourse, if the government is promoting its political reform on the terms of “sex cleansing”, then the liberalists are also voicing for the underprivileged sex workers on the name of “sex”, on the platform of Weibo. Liberalists fought back on the oppression on big Vs (Weibo celebrities). Meanwhile, they stand up for their liberalist view and fight for the boundaries between the public and the private, on this occasion of “sex cleansing”.
3, If we say that the government and liberalists performed a political debate on sex; and they both care about political reform – no matter the government-promoted self-reform within the system; or the liberalist-promoted reconstruction of the relationship between the State and society. However, we could say that neither of them put the point of focus on the system of the market. In another word, in this debate, liberalists asked an extremely important question for Chinese society: What should the government do? Where is the boundary for the government? But the liberalists actually avoided another equally important and pressing question for Chinese society: What could the market do? Where is the boundary for the market?
4, The market economy is a kind of Capitalist economy which worships the market more. It allows the market to fully permeate into social life. It makes the market principal control all kinds of human relations, including sexual relations. While in an ordinary Capitalist society, the legality of sexual trade still deserves discussion.
5, The discussion for the next step has descended to what kind of social conditions could foster the realization of equal loving and sexual relationships based on free will? In a Capitalist society with integrity and principals, rather than a market society, can we ensure the existence of a real and equal loving & sexual relationship?
6, During the “Sex cleansing” campaign in Dongguan, the editorial on People's Daily indirectly admitted that “selling obscenity” (卖淫) is a product of men's sexual desire. But the editorial did not criticize masculine power. Rather, they attributed the reason of the existence of sex service in China as the mode of China's economic development, and lack of sex partners for men. Attributing the reason to the lack of sexual partners, meaning attributing sexual desire as natural, which actually hugely reduces men's moral pressure when they consume sex service. What is unfornuate is that these two reasons actually defend for rape and forced/abducted marriage. Meanwhile the concern for the lack of sex partners for men actually have transformed to a national scale of forced marriage with Chinese characteristics – the heated debate on “leftover women”.
7, The studies conducted by two scholars Pan Suiming and Zheng Tiantian reminded us that sex: the sex men conduct on women, is an important place for men to construct their masculinity. The sex on women not only is a place for men to claim their power on women; but also a battlefield where men compete and bond. In the metaphor of the sex politics in Chinese society, the ones with power are those who unfairly take control of (sex) resources, and therefore squeeze ordinary (male) persons' (sex) resources... This actually reflects the social reality that men construct their internal hierarchy from the ownership of sexual resources.
7, 潘绥铭和郑田田两位学者的研究提示我们：性——男性对女性的性——是男性建构男性气概的重要场所。女人的性，不仅是男人宣示对女人权力的场所，也是男人间竞争的战场和兄弟情谊联结之地。在中国社会性政治的隐喻中，权势者往往是不公平地多占(性)资源，从而挤压普通(男)人的(性)资源。... 这也折射出通过对性资源的占有建构了男性内部等级的社会现实。
8, Pan Suiming talked about the reason for the decreasing number of forced sexual service and humorly said it is because “the bosses are good at doing the thinking work”. The bosses' thinking work includes two parts: one is to demystify young women's illusion on family and love: “those you are going to marry in the future will end up coming here anyway”. Another is the rationale of the gap of salaires – the gap between experiential service and other kind of physical labor. The bosses are good at “doing the thinking work” because they are very clear of the two kinds of orders in our society right now. One is the sexual order needed in family; another is the sexual order needed in society. In Capitalist society, the abstract principle of equality reflected in the family sphere requires the foundation of equality in sexual relations. However, in real life, the macho system in the family requires women's sex as men's private property and requires women to stay faithful, while men enjoy huge sexual freedom. This will hugely defeat many love dreams held by young women with the illusion of sexual equality. When the bosses have bluntly pointed it out, the sex trade in the market has actually become an effective mode for women to control their own sexuality. In Zheng Tiantian's studies, some sex workers despise notion of true love and chastity advertised by the mass media, because they think that's just another clumsy disguise of man's exploitation of women. To them, sex exploitation means men could freely use women's sexuality; but during the trade in the market, men have to pay for women's sexuality.
8, 潘绥铭谈到性服务业的拐卖强迫越来越少的原因，风趣地称“老板的思想工作做得特别到位”。老板的思想工作包括两部分，一个就是打垮年轻姑娘们对家庭和爱情的迷信：“你将来嫁的人无非也是要来这里的”。另一个就是询唤工资差距下的选择理性，体验性服务与其他体力劳动之间的收入差距。老板思想工作的有效性在于他非常清楚当今社会中存在的两种性秩序，一种是家庭所需的性秩序，一种是市场所需的性秩序。在资本主义社会里，抽象的平等原则反映在家庭领域也要求两性关系建立在平等的基础上, 但在现实生活中，家庭里的男权制把女人的性看成是男人的私有财产要求女性伴侣守贞，同时男性拥有广泛的性自由，很大程度上会打击对性别平等抱有幻想的年轻女性的爱情梦。当老板把家庭里的性别平等戳破时，市场中的性交易反而成了女性控制自己性的有利方式。郑田田的研究中称一些性从业者对大众媒体宣传的真爱和贞洁嗤之以鼻，因为在她们看来那不过是男人对女人性剥削的一个拙劣掩饰。对她们来说，性剥削意味着男人可以自由使用女人的性，而在市场交易中，男人必须掏钱使用女人的性。
9, If the public opinion blames men who abuse their sexual freedom on the moral level, then the saying of “the kind of mistake that all men would make” actually lessens the seriousness of men's lack of loyalty. The responsiblity of maintaining the family order has fell on women. Or under the backdrop of men performing their sexual freedom, their wives have to try hard to maintain the completeness of a family. Wives' tolerance is considered their wisdom and high morality. Not only will they have to restrain their intervention on men's sexual freedom, but they have to maintain their family order. Therefore, the moral gaps between two kinds of sexual contracts, and two kinds of sexual orders create conflicts among women – among the wife, the mistress and sex workers, etc.
10, In the Capitalist society, there are two kinds of sexual orders: in the family and in the market. There is no huge moral conflicts for men between the market and family spheres. But women generally have to face two kinds of pressure of sexual morality – sexual freedom (in the market), and sexual chastity (at home).